Nazi-Era Provenance Research Project

In October of 2000, the American Alliance of Museums (AAM), the Association of Art Museum Directors (AAMD) and the Presidential Advisory Commission on Holocaust Assets in the United States (PCHA) agreed upon a standard procedure for presenting provenance information on Nazi-era objects to the public.

In compliance with the AAM criteria, the Jewish Museum is researching the provenance, or history of ownership for paintings and Judaica that fall within the following criteria:

  • Acquired after 1932
  • Created before 1946
  • Which may have changed hands between 1932–1946
  • Which may have been in continental Europe during those years

This site will be updated in installments as new information is discovered and documentation and images are digitized. Currently, the information presented on this website includes paintings and Judaica with gaps in provenance as well as paintings and Judaica with complete provenance. As always, the Museum’s archival collection records are open to serious researchers by appointment. For any information or queries about this Provenance Research Project list, please see Contact Information.

We hope that this material will be helpful in the identification and restitution of works of art that may have been misappropriated during the Nazi era. The Museum also welcomes any provenance related information that the users of this site may be able to provide.

U.S. Resources

American Alliance of Museums

www.aam-us.org

Published AAM's Guidelines Concerning the Unlawful Appropriation of Objects During the Nazi Era, issued November 1999, and amended April 2001.

Presidential Advisory Commission on Holocaust Assets in the U.S.

pcha.ushmm.org/aboutpcha.htm

The PCHA, established by the U.S. Holocaust Assets Commission Act of 1998 is charged with conducting original research into the fate of assets taken from victims of the Holocaust that came into the possession of the U.S. Federal government.

The Nazi-Era Provenance Internet Portal

www.nepip.org

List of participating museums, including the Jewish Museum, New York.

National Archives and Records Administration

International Research Portal: www.archives.gov

A collaboration of national and other archival institutions with records that pertain to Nazi-era cultural property. The portal links researchers to archival materials consisting of descriptions of records and, in many cases, digital images of the records that relate to cultural property that was stolen, looted, seized, forcibly sold, or otherwise lost during the Nazi era.

Holocaust Era Related Resources, Getty Research Institute, Los Angeles

Provenance Index Databases: www.getty.edu

United States Holocaust Museum Library

www.ushmm.org

The Art Loss Register

www.artloss.com

Maintains an active database of more than 250,000 objects, mediates restitution cases, and actively investigates claims.

International Foundation of Art Research

www.ifar.org

IFAR is a not-for-profit educational and research organization that offers impartial and authoritative information on authenticity, ownership, theft, and other artistic, legal, and ethical issues concerning art objects.

European Resources

Lost Art Internet Database

www.lostart.de

A joint project by the Federal Government of Germany and the federal states of Germany, the Lost Art Internet Database facilitates the registration of cultural assets that were relocated, transported, or confiscated as a result of persecution during World War II and the Nazi period, and which lists more than 2,200 looted artworks.

Cultural Plunder by the Einsatzstab Reichsleiter Rosenberg: Database of Art Objects at the Jeu de Paume

www.errproject.org

This database brings together the remaining registration cards and photographs produced by the Einsatzstab Reichsleiter Rosenberg (ERR) covering more than 20,000 art objects taken from Jews in German-occupied France and, to a lesser extent, in Belgium.

Catalogue des MNR

Musées Nationaux Récupération

www.culture.gouv.fr

Searchable index of over 2,000 works stolen from victims of the Holocaust, and in the custodianship of the national museums of France since 1949.

Centre Pompidou

www.centrepompidou.fr

Exhibition of works restituted to the French government after WWII and now in the custodianship of the Musée national d'art moderne/Cci MNR (Musées Nationaux Récupération) shown at the Centre Georges Pompidou, April 9 – 21, 1997.

The National Archive, United Kingdom

www.nationalarchives.gov.uk

Federal Archives, Berlin – Bundesarchiv

www.bundesarchiv.de/index.html.en

Ukrainian National Archives (TsDAVO)

tsdavo.org.ua

Related Exhibitions

The Jewish Museum, New York

Reclaimed: Paintings from the Collection of Jacques Goudstikker

March 15, 2009 – August 02, 2009

This exhibition presents rarely-seen Old Master paintings collected by Jacques Goudstikker, a prominent Jewish art dealer in Amsterdam prior to World War II. In 1940, Goudstikker was forced to flee war-torn Europe. His gallery, which contained approximately 1,400 works of art, was looted by the Nazis. Recently his family reclaimed 200 paintings from the Dutch government; the finest of these works will be on view in this exhibition.

Jewish Historical Museum, Amsterdam

Looted, but from whom?

November 30, 2006 – February 25, 2007

Looted, but from whom? is an exhibition about art objects which were either acquired by forced sale or stolen from their Jewish owners by the Nazis during the Second World War. The fifty art objects on display in the Looted, but from whom? exhibition were chosen to illustrate the efforts of the Origins Unknown Agency.

Online Resource Directory

Methodology

As the works are identified, they are physically examined for markings that would be helpful in determining provenance. The documentation of these works are verified using the following methods:

Artist / Maker

When no signature appears on the work, primary resources are used to identify the maker. If a definitive answer is unavailable the artist/maker is referred to as "Unknown."

Title

Primary titles and known original language or alternate titles are listed.

Execution Date

Whenever possible, the execution date of the painting is taken directly from the physical work. If the date does not appear in the artist's hand on the work, the artist's life dates along with an examination of his body of work are used to determine an approximate date. An execution date determined in this manner will appear in parentheses. Example: (1946)

Medium

Physical examination determined this criteria.

Dimensions

Dimensions listed on this web-site refer to unframed measurements posted as height followed by width.

Signature, Hallmarks, Inscriptions, Markings, Labels

Notes referring to signatures, hallmarks, inscriptions, markings, and labels are prefaced by the location such as, BR (bottom right) and followed by the implement used to create the mark.

Provenance

Many of the works in the collection were acquired directly from descendants of the artists or have been passed down through multiple generations of one family. It is important to keep in mind that a gap in provenance does not necessarily mean a work was looted or stolen.

How to Read Provenance Information

Owners are listed in chronological order with the earliest known owner first. The owner's name is followed by their place of residence and the date(s) of ownership are enclosed in parentheses. Example: John Doe, New York, N.Y. (1930-d.1970)

Possible owners are prefaced by a question mark. Imprecise information is enclosed in brackets. Direct transfers between owners is noted with a semi-colon. If a direct transfer did not occur or the type of transfer is unknown, the owners are separated by a period. The object's accession number follows the provenance information. These numbers appear in two formats. The acquisition year precedes the number representing the order in which the object was accessioned in a given year, for example 1988-107. This object would be the 107th accessioned in the year 1988.

A second format begins with the initials "JM." The initials precede a number representing the order in which the object was accessioned in a given year and is followed by the last two digits of the year of accessioning separated by a hyphen. For example: JM 20-51 would be the 20th object accessioned in the year 1951.

This list of works is sorted alphabetically by the artist's last name. Currently, this is a partial list of works. Additional works will be posted, in installments, as our research continues.

Questions & More information

If you have any questions or information to provide on the listed works, please contact: provenance@thejm.org

Collections Manager
Provenance Research Project
The Jewish Museum
1109 Fifth Avenue
New York, NY 10128

Nazi-Era Provenance List of Works

Artist/Maker
Ludwig Meidner, German, 1884-1966
Title
Portrait of Paul Westheim
Medium
Etching on paper
Dimensions (imperial)
15 5/16 × 11 1/16 in. (38.9 × 28.1 cm)
Accession Number
2006-33
Acquistion
Bequest of Abraham Aaroni
Provenance
?. Abraham Aaroni (purchased from a Berlin art gallery, c. 1945; bequeathed to TJM)
Artist/Maker
Elie Nadelman, American, b. Poland, 1882-1946
Title
Classical Head
Medium
Marble
Dimensions (imperial)
13 1/2 × 8 1/2 × 9 1/2 in. (34.3 × 21.6 × 24.1 cm)
Accession Number
2005-18
Acquistion
Gift of Slong and Midas Properties, Inc.
Provenance
?. Bella and Sol Fishko, New York; [Forum Gallery, New York; sold to Slong and Midas Protperties, Inc., in 1999]; donated to TJM, 2005.
Artist/Maker
Moritz Daniel Oppenheim, German, 1800-1882
Title
The Bar Mitzvah Discourse (Bar-Mizwa-Vortag)
Medium
Oil on canvas
Dimensions (imperial)
23 × 26 1/4 in. (58.4 × 66.7 cm)
Accession Number
1999-99
Marks
Label: "...t am Main/...markt 23." vrso of frame top center
Acquistion
Gift of the Oscar and Regina Gruss Charitable and Educational Foundation, Inc.
Provenance
the artist's family (after 1866; sold to Hermann Cramer); Hermann Cramer, Frankfurt, Germany (until d. 1919); his wife, Hedwig Cramer, Frankfurt, Germany (1919-d. 1934); her son, Sally H. Cramer, Hamburg, Germany, later London, England (1934-d. 1952); his son, Robert Cramer (1952); [sale, ?London, England, about 1952]?.Oscar Gruss, New York, NY (until 1999)
Artist/Maker
Moritz Daniel Oppenheim, German, 1800-1882
Title
The Godfather Awaits the Child (Der Gevatter erwartet das Kind)
Medium
Oil on canvas
Dimensions (imperial)
21 3/4 × 26 15/16 in. (55.2 × 68.5 cm)
Accession Number
1999-97
Marks
Label: "...t am Main/ ...markt 23." verso of frame top center
Acquistion
Gift of the Oscar and Regina Gruss Charitable and Educational Foundation, Inc.
Provenance
the artist's family (after 1866; sold to Hermann Cramer); Hermann Cramer, Frankfurt, Germany (until d. 1919); his wife, Hedwig Cramer, Frankfurt, Germany (1919-d. 1934); her son, Sally H. Cramer, Hamburg, Germany, later London, England (1934-d. 1952); his son, Robert Cramer (1952); [sale, ?London, England, about 1952]?. Oscar Gruss, New York, NY (until 1999)
Artist/Maker
Moritz Daniel Oppenheim, German, 1800-1882
Title
Purim (Feast of Esther) (Das Purim-Fest)
Medium
Oil on canvas
Dimensions (imperial)
18 7/8 × 22 7/8 in. (48 × 58.2 cm)
Accession Number
1999-96
Marks
Label: "FA [circled] OLLENDORFF FINE ARTS/ FINE ART PACKERS AND SHIPPERS/NEW YORK SAN FRANCISCO/Lot No. Piece No. / 9160A 4" verso TL top stretcher Label: "the israel museum, jerusalem, israel/artist Moritz Oppenheim/title Purim (the Feast of Esther) / acq.no. / donor / fund lent by the Collection / Oscar Gruss, New York / Exhibition: Moritz Oppenheim. The first / Jewish Painter.Sept.83-Jan.84" verso BL of frame
Acquistion
Gift of the Oscar and Regina Gruss Charitable and Educational Foundation, Inc.
Provenance
the artist's family (after 1866; sold to Hermann Cramer); Hermann Cramer, Frankfurt, Germany (until d. 1919); his wife, Hedwig Cramer, Frankfurt, Germany (1919-d. 1934); her son, Sally H. Cramer, Hamburg, Germany, later London, England (1934-d. 1952); his son, Robert Cramer (1952); [sale, ?London, England, about 1952]?. Oscar Gruss, New York, NY (until 1999)
Artist/Maker
Moritz Daniel Oppenheim, German, 1800-1882
Title
The Return of the Volunteer (Die Rückkehr des Freiwilligen)
Medium
Oil on canvas
Dimensions (imperial)
22 5/8 × 27 5/8 in. (57.4 × 70.1 cm)
Accession Number
1999-95
Marks
Label "L1986-6/FROM REGINA GRUSS" verso TL top stretcher Label: "...r's Return.../(Volunt...home from/the wars of liberation) / Title of Work Die Rueckkehr des Freiwilligen" and "XVII" [circled] verso TC top stretcher Label "952" verso TR bottom stretcher
Acquistion
Gift of the Oscar and Regina Gruss Charitable and Educational Foundation, Inc.
Provenance
the artist's family (after 1866; sold to Hermann Cramer); Hermann Cramer, Frankfurt, Germany (until d. 1919); his wife, Hedwig Cramer, Frankfurt, Germany (1919-d. 1934); her son, Sally H. Cramer, Hamburg, Germany, later London, England (1934-d. 1952); his son, Robert Cramer (1952); [sale, ?London, England, about 1952]?.Oscar Gruss, New York, NY (until 1999)
Artist/Maker
Moritz Daniel Oppenheim, German, 1800-1882
Title
The Heder (The Jewish Elementary School) (Der Cheder - Die jüdische Elementarschule)
Medium
Oil on composition board
Dimensions (imperial)
8 5/8 × 11 3/8 in. (21.8 × 28.8 cm)
Accession Number
1999-94
Marks
Label "18" verso TR Label "the israel museum, jerusalem, israel/ artist Moritz Oppenheim/ title The Heder, 1878/ acq. no. / donor/fund lent by the Collection / Oscar Gruss, New York / Exhibiton: Moritz Oppeenheim. The first/ Jewish Painter. Sept.83-Jan.84" verso TL in pen Label: "FA OLLENDORFF FINE ARTS/ FINE ART PACKERS AND SHIPPERS / NEW YORK SAN FRANCISCO / Lot No. Piece No. / 9160A 3" verso TL of frame
Inscription
Verso, TC in pencil: "3..." Verso, TR in blue crayon: "...24"
Acquistion
Gift of the Oscar and Regina Gruss Charitable and Educational Foundation, Inc.
Provenance
the artist's family (after 1866; sold to Hermann Cramer); Hermann Cramer, Frankfurt, Germany (until d. 1919); his wife, Hedwig Cramer, Frankfurt, Germany (1919-d. 1934); her son, Sally H. Cramer, Hamburg, Germany, later London, England (1934-d. 1952); his son, Robert Cramer (1952); [sale, ?London, England, about 1952]?.Oscar Gruss, New York, NY (until 1999)
Artist/Maker
Moritz Daniel Oppenheim, German, 1800-1882
Title
The Conclusion of the Sabbath (Sabbath-Ausgang)
Medium
Oil on canvas
Dimensions (imperial)
25 1/4 × 21 7/8 in. (64.1 × 55.6 cm)
Accession Number
1999-93
Marks
Label: "the israel museum, jerusalem, israel/artist Moritz Oppenheim/title The Conclusion of the Sabbath, 1866/acq. no./donor/fund lent by the Collection/Oscar Gruss, New York/Exhibition: Moritz Oppenheim: The first/Jewish Painter.Sept.83-Jan.84" verso TL top stretcher Label: "Framed For/Order #/ Member/AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF CUSTOM FRAME MAKERS INC NEW YORK (logo)/ APF MANUFACTURING INC./Shop: 315 East 91 Street New York 28/Showrooms: 231 East 60 Street New York 22/1228 Second Ave. New York 21/Artist/Title/Size Medium" verso BR right stretcher Label: "New York/Gruss Collection/MGB6/942/03/012" verso TL of frame "E" [reversed] verso LC of frame in marker "T" verso BL of frame in red paint "I" [Roman numeral] verso BC of frame in marker "II" [Roman numeral] verso RC in marker
Acquistion
Gift of the Oscar and Regina Gruss Charitable and Educational Foundation, Inc.
Provenance
the artist's family (after 1866; sold to Hermann Cramer); Hermann Cramer, Frankfurt, Germany (until d. 1919); his wife, Hedwig Cramer, Frankfurt, Germany (1919-d. 1934); her son, Sally H. Cramer, Hamburg, Germany, later London, England (1934-d. 1952); his son, Robert Cramer (1952); [sale, ?London, England, about 1952]?.Oscar Gruss, New York, NY (until 1999)
Artist/Maker
Moritz Daniel Oppenheim, German, 1800-1882
Title
Sukkot (Feast of Tabernacles) (Das Laubhütten-Fest)
Medium
Oil on canvas
Dimensions (imperial)
25 7/16 × 22 in. (64.6 × 55.9 cm)
Accession Number
1999-92
Marks
Label "LEI...LS/Tel:-7335.Feast of Tabernacles / (Dinner in the Family-Suc... / ...of Work Das Laubhüttenfe..." verso TR top stretcher Label "Dahesh Museum / 601 FIFTH AVENUE NEW YORK,NY 10017 TEL 212-759-0606/LENDER: The Jewish Museum/ Moritz Daniel Oppenheim / Sukkot (Tabernacles), 1867 / Oil on canvas, 25 1/2 x 22 inches (65 x 56 cm) / 1999-92 / Telling Tales II: Religious Images in 19th-Century / Academic Art, October 15, 2001-January 26, 2002" verso on backing board
Acquistion
Gift of the Oscar and Regina Gruss Charitable and Educational Foundation, Inc.
Provenance
the artist's family (after 1866; sold to Hermann Cramer); Hermann Cramer, Frankfurt, Germany (until d. 1919); his wife, Hedwig Cramer, Frankfurt, Germany (1919-d. 1934); her son, Sally H. Cramer, Hamburg, Germany, later London, England (1934-d. 1952); his son, Robert Cramer (1952); [sale, ?London, England, about 1952]?.Oscar Gruss, New York, NY (until 1999)
Artist/Maker
Moritz Daniel Oppenheim, German, 1800-1882
Title
The Rabbi’s Blessing (Der Segen des Rabbi)
Medium
Oil on canvas
Dimensions (imperial)
23 × 18 3/4 in. (58.4 × 47.6 cm)
Accession Number
1999-91
Inscription
Verso BR of frame in red crayon: "J" Verso TR of frame in pencil: "IV" Verso right side of frame etched in wood: "P 231...x4..." [the letter "P" is circled]
Acquistion
Gift of the Oscar and Regina Gruss Charitable and Educational Foundation, Inc.
Provenance
the artist's family (after 1866; sold to Hermann Cramer); Hermann Cramer, Frankfurt, Germany (until d. 1919); his wife, Hedwig Cramer, Frankfurt, Germany (1919-d. 1934); her son, Sally H. Cramer, Hamburg, Germany, later London, England (1934-d. 1952); his son, Robert Cramer (1952); [sale, ?London, England, about 1952]?.Oscar Gruss, New York, NY (before 1999)
Artist/Maker
Moritz Daniel Oppenheim, German, 1800-1882
Title
Ushering in the Sabbath (Sabbath-Anfang)
Medium
Oil on paper on board
Dimensions (imperial)
17 15/16 × 14 1/8 in. (45.6 × 35.9 cm)
Accession Number
1999-90
Marks
Label "OLLENDORFF FINE ARTS/FINEART PACKERS AND SHIPPERS/NEW YORK SAN FRANCISCO/LOT No. 9160A Piece No.5" verso TR on backing board in print Label "the israel museum, jerusalem,israel / artist moritz oppenheim / title ushering in the Sabbath, 1865 / acq. no. / donor / fund lent by the Collection Oscar Gruss, New York / Exhibition: Moritz Oppenheim. The First Jewish Painter. Sept.83-Jan.84" verso TL in print and pen
Acquistion
Gift of the Oscar and Regina Gruss Charitable and Educational Foundation, Inc.
Provenance
the artist's family (after 1866; sold to Hermann Cramer); Hermann Cramer, Frankfurt, Germany (until d. 1919); his wife, Hedwig Cramer, Frankfurt, Germany (1919-d. 1934); her son, Sally H. Cramer, Hamburg, Germany, later London, England (1934-d. 1952); his son, Robert Cramer (1952); [sale, ?London, England, about 1952]?.Oscar Gruss, New York, NY (until 1999)
Artist/Maker
Moritz Daniel Oppenheim, German, 1800-1882
Title
Seder (The Passover Meal) (Der Oster-Abend)
Medium
Oil on paper on canvas
Dimensions (imperial)
24 1/2 × 18 in. (62.2 × 45.7 cm)
Accession Number
1999-88
Marks
"4" verso BL of frame in marker
Inscription
Verso TC on canvas edge in pencil: "1999-88" Verso TC on canvas in pencil: "19" Verso left stretcher in pencil: "148t"(top) and "IV"(center) and "16"(bottom) Verso bottom stretcher in pencil: "74"
Acquistion
Gift of the Oscar and Regina Gruss Charitable and Educational Foundation, Inc.
Provenance
the artist's family (after 1866; sold to Hermann Cramer); Hermann Cramer, Frankfurt, Germany (until d. 1919); his wife, Hedwig Cramer, Frankfurt, Germany (1919-d. 1934); her son, Sally H. Cramer, Hamburg, Germany, later London, England (1934-d. 1952); his son, Robert Cramer (1952); [sale, ?London, England, about 1952]?.Oscar Gruss, New York, NY (until 1999)