As the works are identified, they are physically examined for markings that would be helpful in determining provenance. The documentation of these works are verified using the following methods:
Artist / Maker
When no signature appears on the work, primary resources are used to identify the maker. If a definitive answer is unavailable the artist/maker is referred to as "Unknown."
Primary titles and known original language or alternate titles are listed.
Whenever possible, the execution date of the painting is taken directly from the physical work. If the date does not appear in the artist's hand on the work, the artist's life dates along with an examination of his body of work are used to determine an approximate date. An execution date determined in this manner will appear in parentheses. Example: (1946)
Physical examination determined this criteria.
Dimensions listed on this web-site refer to unframed measurements posted as height followed by width.
Signature, Hallmarks, Inscriptions, Markings, Labels
Notes referring to signatures, hallmarks, inscriptions, markings, and labels are prefaced by the location such as, BR (bottom right) and followed by the implement used to create the mark.
Many of the works in the collection were acquired directly from descendants of the artists or have been passed down through multiple generations of one family. It is important to keep in mind that a gap in provenance does not necessarily mean a work was looted or stolen.